In Last Part, We discussed the basics of Modals and the uses of May/Might & Can/Could. In this part, You will learn to use some other commonly used modals. Click Here to read the Modal Part-1 Post.
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(A) Duty/ Obligation
- You should stand by your brother.
- I should leave now.
- Promises should be kept.
- He should be present here.
(B) Future in the Past
- I told him that I should go there.
- Did I not tell you that I should qualify?
- Walk carefully lest you should fall.
- Should you work hard, you will get success. ('should' is used in the sense of 'if')
(E) Should + Have : This form is used to express obligation in the past. It may imply the non-performance of the action. For example
- You should have stood by your brother.
- He should have left a message.
- He should have been present at the party.
- My brother should have replied politely.
(4) Must : It expresses
(A) Necessity or Obligation (in place of 'should')
- You must follow instructions.
- I must leave now.
(B) Order of the Speaker
- You must not leave now.
- They must not play here.
(C) Strong Possibility ( in place of 'may')
- It is ten. The teacher must be in the class.
- She must be working in the office now.
- I must help him.
(E) Deduction, Inference
- He has a big house. He must be rich.
- She reads a lot. She must be learned.
(F) Must + Have : This form is used for a past action or situation indicating non-performance of action. For example
- You must have followed instructions.
- You must have left them.
- I must have helped him.
5. Ought to : It expresses
(A) Duty or Moral Obligation: It is normally used for 'should & must' , when there is strong sense of moral duty, advice or indication of correct action.For example
- You ought to serve your motherland.
- You ought not to take fatty food.
- You ought to take food before leaving.
(B) Ought to + Have : This construction is used in relation to past action of duty that was not fulfilled or an action that was neglected in the past.
- You ought to have taken care of your wife.
- You ought to have served your parents.
- He ought to have been present at the wedding of his friend.
- He ought not to have smoked in the bus.
6. To be + Infinitive : This expression is used to
(A) Express Plan
- I am to make a speech tomorrow.
- She is to leave for the States after marriage.
- I was to make a speech yesterday.
- She was to leave for the States for higher study.
The last two sentences do not state expressly about the implementation of the plan.
(B) Express Order (In the sense of 'must')
- Students are to wait outside.
- The servant is to remain in the house till we return.
(C) Obligation/ Duty
- I am to help my ailing brother.
- My friend was to send money to his sister.
(D) To be + have : This expression is used to express an action that could not take place according to plan.
- He was to have attended marriage but fell ill.
- Deepu was to have appeared at the examination but she gave up the plan.
7. To have + Infinitive : This expression is used to express compulsion as he is expressed with 'Must'. It also expresses obligation( In the Present, Past & Future).
- I have to leave for Delhi today.
- I don't have to meet him now.
- I will have to get up early in the morning.
- I had to leave for Delhi yesterday.
- I did not have to meet him there.
We will discuss following Modals in next Part
- Used To: Would
- Need & Need Not
Also Check - All about Question Tags and its different Rules