Thursday, October 23, 2014

National Insignia India: National Flag, National Flower, National Bird, National Anthem

National Insignia


National Flag India
The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep safron(Kesaria) at the top, white in the middle and dar green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the center of the white band is navy-blue wheel which represents the Chakra. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter is approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes .The design of the national flag was adopted by the constituent assembly of India on july 22, 1947.


The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law(Dharma Chakra).

In the State emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26th January 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth bring hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief. In the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left.The bell shaped lotus has been omitted . The words "Satyameva Jayate" from "Mundaka Upanishad" meaning "Truth Alone Triumphs" are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari Script.


The song Jana-gana-mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore ,was adopted in its Hindi Version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on January 24, 1950. It was first sung on December 27, 1911, at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas.


The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankim chandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.


The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris ,is striped animal. It has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark stripes. The combination of grace, strength ,agility and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the national animal of India. Out of eight races of the species known, the Indian race, the Royal Bengal Tiger , is found throughout the country-except in the north-western region and also in the neighbouring countries, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. To check the dwindling population of tigers in India, project Tiger was launched in April 1973. So far, 27 tiger reserves have been established in the country under this project, covering an area of 37,761 sq. kms.


Lotus(Nelumbo Nuciferra) is the National flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.


The India Peacock, (pava cristatus) the national bird of India, is a colouful , swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, sledner neck. The male of the species is more colourful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green train of around 200 elongated feathers. The female is brownish, slightly smaller than the male and lacks the train. The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a gorgeous sight.

The peacock is widely found in the Indian sub-continent from the south and east of the Indus river, Jammu and Kashmir, east Assam, south Mizoram and the whole of the Indian Peninsula. The peacock enjoys protection from the people as it is never molested for religious and sentimental reasons. It is fully protected under the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.


The National Calender is based on the Saka Era, Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22nd March 1957 along with the Gregorian Calender for the  official purposes.


  • National Tree - The Banyan Tree(Ficus benghalensis)
  • National Fruit - Mango(Manigifera indica)
  • National Aquatic Animal -The mammal Ganges River Dolphin(Platanista gangetica)

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