Thursday, September 4, 2014

Notes on Buddhism for SSC Exams

BUDDHISM
  • Buddhism, the fourth greatest religion in the world, originated in India and it spread to neighbouring countries: like - Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Japan, China Vietnam and Thailand.
  • Budhhism was founded by Gautama Buddha
Important Facts about Buddha

Birth 563 BC( According to some Historians)
Birth Place Lumbini( Now in Nepal) near kapilvastu, the capital of the Shakyas
Real Name Siddhartha
Father’s Name Suddhodanana, elected chief of the Shakyas
Mother’s Name Mahamaya
Step Mother Prajapati Gautami
Wife Yashodhara
Son Rahul
Caste Kshatriya
His Horse Kantaka
Charioteer Channa
Four Signs Aged man, sick man , corpse , Mendicant
Teacher(Guru) Asita was first Guru, Alana Kalama taught hi mediation and Upanishads
Great Going Forth Mahabhiniskramana at the age of 29
Place of Enlightnment( Nirvana) Beneath a Pipal tree in Gaya(Bodh Gaya) at Niranjana river at the age of 35
First Sermon Dharmachakra pravartana , Sarnath near Varanasi
Death( Parinirvana) Kushinagar, at Kasiya village in Deoria district of U.P at the age of 80 in 487 BC.

Buddhist Sects
  • The Hinayana
  • The Mahayana
  • The Vajrayana
Buddhist Literatures
  1. Vinaya Pitaka  - Rules of the order or Buddha's disciplinary code
  2. Sutta Pitaka - Sermons on matter of doctrines and ethics, Buddha's teachings
  3. Abhidhamma Pitaka - On metaphysics and philosophy
Buddhist Councils
Council
Time
Place
King
Chairmanship
Development
First
483 BC
Sattapani Cave
( Rajagriha, Bihar)
Ajatshatru
Mahakassapa
Vinay Pitaka compiled by Upali and Sutta Pitaka compiled by Ananda
Second
383 BC
Vaishali
( Bihar)
Kalashoka
Sabakami
Permanent split of the Buddhist order into Sthavirmadins and Mahasanghikas
Third
250 BC
Pataliputra
(Bihar)
Ashoka
MoggaliputtaTissa
The third Pitak-Abhidhamma pitaka was compiled
Fourth
72 AD
Kundalvana
(Kashmir)
Kanishka
Vasumitra
Division of Buddhism into the Mahayana and the Hinayana sects. Codification of Sarvastivadin doctrine as Mahavibhasa took place


The Doctrine of Buddha

Four Great Truths (Aryasatya)
  • The World is full of sorrow and misery.
  • The cause of all pain and misery is desire
  • Pain and misery can be ended by controlling the desire.
  • Desire can be controlled by following the eight-fold path.
The Eight-Fold Path( Ashtang Marga) Consists of :
  • Right Faith
  • Right Thought
  • Right Action
  • Right Means of Livelihood
  • Right exertion of efforts
  • Right Speech
  • Right Remembrance
  • Right Concentration or Meditation.
More Useful Stuffs on Buddhism

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